Age-standardized rates of divorce for second marriages women were found in almost all the groups in duration of marriage significantly higher than for the first. Divorce rate of marriages is a clear trend: most first marriages are terminated in the fifth year of marriage. Curve divorce remarriage has two "peak" - on the third and fifth years of marriage, which indicates the relative heterogeneity of the contingent consisting remarried. With a further increase in the duration of marriage divorces both the first and second marriages is decreasing, and for the duration of the marriage for more than 15 years of remarriage are terminated less than the first, although this difference is insignificant. The average divorce rate of second marriages is 75% higher than the first. Thus, the notion that the second marriage of the first stable, based, apparently, more on hope, not on facts. Unfortunately, information on the stability of reconstituted according to socio-demographic characteristics of the spouses are not available. Divorce rate is also dependent on the number of children in divorcing spouses. Typically, the childless divorce more often than spouses who have children, and more children in the family, the relatively less often it breaks. Important demographic reasons for divorce - sterility of a spouse or a reluctance to have children. If the proportion of childless marriages among all marriages typically 5-15%, among the total number of divorces, their share in some countries (predominantly Muslim) reaches 60-80%. Demographic factors listed divorce are ultimately social and demographic nature may be called very conditional. They are relatively easily measurable and therefore can be studied well enough, at least for the larger material. Actually social factors, more divorces, in different social groups studied less. From the point of view of the demographic development of the family deserves the greatest attention to the impact of divorce on fertility. Held perception that the instability of marriage, in particular, divorce, a negative effect on fertility. In support of this usually refer to the fact that divorce reduces the duration of married life, including demographic and effective in the sense of marriage. The previous divorce tension in the family and the prospect of its collapse may encourage spouses to limit childbearing. But we must not lose sight of, as already mentioned, and the possibility of feedback - in some cases, divorce may be due to a childless marriage or the prospect of a new marriage, in which a child, usually appears. According to experts, the negative impact of divorce on fertility exist only at a time when the population was dominated by large families. With high birth rate dependence of the number of children in the family of the duration of marriage more closely, and divorce, reducing the time of the marriage, automatically reduces the possibility of births in the family. At a low level of fertility for the birth of the planned one or two children no longer need a marriage of long duration. The estimated total number of children of women who remarry, even slightly higher than that consisting in an uninterruptible married to the same age. So few children with widespread family dissolution of marriage has no significant effect on the number of offspring in those women who enter into a new marriage. However, if you remarry and to make up for the loss of fertility caused by the termination of a particular woman's first marriage, the loss due to the fact that the second marriage did not come all the divorced and widowed women in a generation, it is, of course, can not make up. For a whole generation of dissolution of marriage, of course, reduces the number of children born to all women, and reduce the more than a minority of divorced and widowed from this generation enters into a new marriage. Thus, the reduction in the rate of divorces in 1950 compared to the pre-war period is most likely related to some complication of the procedure for divorce, introduced by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on July 8, 1944, according to which the divorce was allowed only in the court with the subsequent approval of the decision by a higher by the court. It is believed that a sharp jump in the number of divorces in 1966, and in part an increase in their numbers in the coming years due not only to an increased frequency of divorce, but mainly to the fact that it was legally formalized termination of marriages actually broken in previous years. An indirect confirmation of this is the increase in the late 60's. duration of divorce. The median duration of divorce, which stood at the beginning of the 60s. 6.5 years by the end of the decade increased to 8.2 years, and only then began to slowly decline. In other words, the decree of 10 December 1965 affected the dissolution of marriages mostly of long duration, in fact, no longer existed. As can be seen from Table 19, the absolute number of divorces rose faster in the crude divorce rate. Thus, their growth can not be entirely attributed to the increase in the frequency of divorce. To a certain extent it is associated with an increase in population and, accordingly, the number of couples: from 1959 to 1970 it grew by 19.3 million, or 22%, and from 1970 to 1979 - 16.8 million or 16%. In addition, also played the role of the changing age structure of married couples. It should be borne in mind that the surge in the annual number of divorces in the late 70's - early 80's. was largely driven by growth in the same period the number of young marriages, ie marriages at a young age. In 1970-ies. married generation born in the early 50s., ie in the post-war years of maximum fertility to rise. And as the young marriages fail more often and grew annual number of divorces. Expanding their growth into components, it can be argued that the increase in the number of young marriages led to about a third of the annual increase in number of divorces. However, the remaining two-thirds should be attributed to the growth rate of divorce. Over the last quarter century has considerably increased the overall divorce rate is not only due to the increase in the number of married (the effect of the structure), but also due to significant changes in the behavior of the population, especially young people. The growth of divorce in the 1970s. replaced by stabilization in 1980, but since 1991 the curve of divorce came up again, reaching the highest rates in 1993-95. This was followed by a decrease in the absolute number of divorces and the divorce rate, but in 2000 the total number of divorces has increased once again to 95 thousand, and the divorce rate has increased to about 4.3% (see Table. 19). Changes in the dynamics of divorce rates in the 1990s. primarily due to demographic reasons: the award in 1991-95. high divorce rate in marriages preceded by a surge of young and very young age in the years 1987-91., especially in women. Naturally, one would expect that after a sharp increase in the number of marriages in a few years there will come an increase in the number of divorces, even with the same probability of divorce. The analysis shows that the divorce rate has grown most rapidly in ages 20-24 years and 25-29 years, and by 1994 exceeded the previously observed values ​​in these age groups. In this age rejuvenation divorced women was higher than divorced men. At the age of 30 years, the increase in divorces has not led to any record figures. Their growth likely reflects changing attitudes toward divorce, which occurred in families with children having children increasingly play a role deterrent registered marriages from divorce. Along with lower divorce rates in 1995 reduced the number of children affected by their parents' divorce. If in 1988-94 years. The number of divorces in which the spouses have children has increased by 32%, over the next four years (1995-98), it is, on the contrary, decreased by 36%. According to the Center for Demography and Human Ecology, the average number of children per divorce decreased to 0.77 - the lowest value in the last 10 years. Significant changes were made and the average duration of marriages ended in divorce. As already mentioned, in the 60s there was an increase in average duration of disintegrating marriages caused by the liberalization of the law. From 1967 to 1975. the average duration of marriage has declined, and then briefly stabilized, and since 1985 has again started to increase rapidly. It should be noted differentiation in the dynamics of divorce urban and rural population (see Table. 20). In 1980, in the cities of the overall divorce rate reached a value of 5.0% and on for 20 years ranged from 4,4-5,3. In the village of divorces was significantly less than in the city (for example, in 1970 - 3.8 times). Then the divorce rate in rural areas was steadily rising.
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